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Old 1st November 2016, 06:27 PM
Default What is TOEFL Practice Test

Can you provide me some questions for practice for TOEFL or Test of English as a Foreign Language as I want to have an idea about the test?
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Old 2nd November 2016, 09:25 AM
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Default Re: What is TOEFL Practice Test

Some questions for practice for TOEFL or Test of English as a Foreign Language are as follows:

Deep in the Sierra Nevada, the famous General Grant giant sequoia tree is suffering its loss of stature in silence. What once was the world's No. 2 biggest tree has been supplanted thanks to the most comprehensive measurements taken of the largest living things on Earth.
The new No. 2 is The President, a 54,000-cubic-foot gargantuan not far from the Grant in Sequoia National Park. After 3,240 years, the giant sequoia still is growing wider at a consistent rate, which may be what most surprised the scientists examining how the sequoias and coastal redwoods will be affected by climate change and whether these trees have a role to play in combating it.
"I consider it to be the greatest tree in all of the mountains of the world," said Stephen Sillett, a redwood researcher whose team from Humboldt State University is seeking to mathematically assess the potential of California's iconic trees to absorb planet-warming carbon dioxide.
The researchers are a part of the 10-year Redwoods and Climate Change Initiative funded by the Save the Redwoods League in San Francisco. The measurements of The President, reported in the current National Geographic, dispelled the previous notion that the big trees grow more slowly in old age.
It means, the experts say, the amount of carbon dioxide they absorb during photosynthesis continues to increase over their lifetimes.
In addition to painstaking measurements of every branch and twig, the team took 15 half-centimeter-wide core samples of The President to determine its growth rate, which they learned was stunted in the abnormally cold year of 1580 when temperatures in the Sierra hovered near freezing even in the summer and the trees remained dormant.
But that was an anomaly, Sillett said. The President adds about one cubic meter of wood a year during its short six-month growing season, making it one of the fastest-growing trees in the world. Its 2 billion leaves are thought to be the most of any tree on the planet, which would also make it one of the most efficient at transforming carbon dioxide into nourishing sugars during photosynthesis.
"We're not going to save the world with any one strategy, but part of the value of these great trees is this contribution and we're trying to get a handle on the math behind that," Sillett said.
After the equivalent of 32 working days dangling from ropes in The President, Sillett's team is closer to having a mathematical equation to determine its carbon conversion potential, as it has done with some less famous coastal redwoods. The team has analyzed a representative sample that can be used to model the capacity of the state's signature trees.
More immediately, however, the new measurements could lead to a changing of the guard in the land of giant sequoias. The park would have to update signs and brochures - and someone is going to have to correct the Wikipedia entry for "List of largest giant sequoias," which still has The President at No. 3.
Now at 93 feet in circumference and with 45,000 cubic feet of trunk volume and another 9,000 cubic feet in its branches, the tree named for President Warren G. Harding is about 15 percent larger than Grant, also known as America's Christmas Tree. Sliced into one-foot by one-foot cubes, The President would cover a football field.
Giant sequoias grow so big and for so long because their wood is resistant to the pests and disease that dwarf the lifespan of other trees, and their thick bark makes them impervious to fast-moving fire.
It's that resiliency that makes sequoias and their taller coastal redwood cousin worthy of intensive protections - and even candidates for cultivation to pull carbon from an increasingly warming atmosphere, Sillett said. Unlike white firs, which easily die and decay to send decomposing carbon back into the air, rot-resistant redwoods stay solid for hundreds of years after they fall.
Though sequoias are native to California, early settlers traveled with seedlings back to the British Isles and New Zealand, where a 15-foot diameter sequoia that is the world's biggest planted tree took root in 1850. Part of Sillett's studies involves modeling the potential growth rate of cultivated sequoia forests to determine over time how much carbon sequestering might increase.
All of that led him to a spot 7,000 feet high in the Sierra and to The President, which he calls "the ultimate example of a giant sequoia." Compared to the other giants whose silhouettes are bedraggled by lightning strikes, The President's crown is large with burly branches that are themselves as large as tree trunks.
The world's biggest tree is still the nearby General Sherman with about 2,000 cubic feet more volume than the President, but to Sillett it's not a contest.
"They're all superlative in their own way," Sillett said.

1. The word "supplanted" in paragraph 1
A) inquisitive
B) Has a double-meaning both as a pun on the topic of plants and a literal meaning of "to replace"
C) Is a synonym for "to plant again"
D) Has the same meaning as "to plant," with extra emphasis

2. One common myth about trees that The President helps disprove is
A) That giant sequoias are more resilient than other tree species
B) That old trees are as productive at photosynthesis as younger ones
C) That only giant sequoias may be named after historical figures
D) That large trees grow more slowly as they age

3. What is the primary benefit that Sillett and other researchers suggest that giant sequoias may have?
A) Their natural beauty can have health benefits for those who travel to wildlife preserves to see them
B) They represent centuries of natural history that no other living things do
C) Because of their size, they are able to process more carbon dioxide than other trees, which can have significant benefits for the atmosphere
D) Their resilient bark may have eventual uses in human medicine.

4. The giant sequoias are compared to white firs to demonstrate that?
A) Even when the sequoias fall, they do not decay and so send less carbon into the air
B) White firs are more plentiful because they grow and decay more quickly than sequoias
C) The giant sequoias are completely resistant to death
D) White firs are essential because when they decompose they emit necessary nutrients

5. The President has grown every year EXCEPT
A) 1850
B) 2012
C) 1580
D) The President has grown every year of its life

6. All of the following contribute to the lifespan of the giant sequoia EXCEPT
A) They are resistant to diseases that can affect other tree species
B) Their size makes them less vulnerable to animal attacks
C) They are resistant to pests that commonly inhabit trees
D) Their thick bark protects them from wildfires.

7. The term "changing of the guard" in Paragraph 10 means
A) The size rankings of various large sequoias is being reevaluated
B) Human security will be employed to protect these valuable trees
C) Wildlife parks will bring in new equipment to ensure the safety of the trees
D) A new schedule of shifts will be made for studying the trees

8. What does the term "cultivated sequoia forests" in Paragraph 14 imply?
A) Current sequoia reserves will be altered to grow in particular patterns
B) That sequoias may be specially grown in the future for the sole purpose of filtering carbon from the air
C) New forests may be grown globally to promote the beauty of the species
D) Wildlife parks will make more of an effort in the future to direct visitors to the sequoia forests

9. Giant sequoias are native to California, but can also be found in
A) New Zealand
B) France
C) South America
D) Australia

10. In the final sentence, the word "superlative" is closest in meaning to
A) Best of a species
B) Most beautiful
C) The winner of a contest
D) Having individual, unique merit

In the middle of the night, as most of New York slept, something big and bright lit up the Manhattan skyline for just seconds-a tightly kept secret to all but a handful of people.
It was a tiny test for the huge public surprise four days later: the flipping of a switch at the Empire State Building to turn on its dancing new LED lights. They burst from the skyscraper while synchronized with R&B star Alicia Keys singing "Empire State of Mind" on nationwide radio.
The LED system has "16.7 million color possibilities, in digital combinations of ripples, sparkles, sweeps and strobes," says Phil O'Donnell, of Burlington, Mass.-based Philips Color Kinetics that's responsible for the system and worked with a resident lighting designer. "It's the sum of all possibilities - a huge palette."
The old lights came in only 10 colors.
From Manhattan and the Bronx to Staten Island and even New Jersey, "there were hundreds of thousands of people on the streets looking up, filming and videoing, clustered on street corners," when the new lights came on, said Anthony Malkin, whose family controls the iconic Art Deco building.
In an interview with The Associated Press at his office, he glowed with pleasure describing Monday night's inaugural light show.
Keys also sang "Girl On Fire" from her new CD.
After all, the 102-story skyscraper "has always been a symbol of what's possible in New York, and all the dreams that can come true in this city that never sleeps," Keys, a New York native, said before her performance, which was ready on tracks while she watched from a Manhattan studio.
Malkin and his technical team wanted to test the new lighting system with as few people noticing as possible and chose early Thanksgiving morning.
Good luck, in the middle of Manhattan, with people walking around even at 2:30 a.m.
That seemed the best moment, after most bars close and before dawn.
"We decided to do it facing west, in very short bursts between 2:30 a.m. and 3 a.m., because we knew we didn't have a camera trained on us from there," Malkin said.
Apparently, the secret test worked. No images of the Empire State Building alight that night appeared anywhere, as far as Malkin knows.
To stage the show, he worked with Clear Channel radio, which has 239 million monthly listeners in the United States.
The lights are part of a larger effort to modernize the 81-year-old edifice that is undergoing a more than half a billion-dollar renovation that includes making it "green." The computerized LED system will cut energy consumption by more than half, while delivering light and vibrancy superior to the old floodlights, which have huge timpani drum-size lenses that had to be changed every so often, O'Donnell said.
They may still have nostalgic value to some who watched them light up New York City for every special occasion from Christmas to the Fourth of July.
They were part of "the grande dame of the New York skyline, now state-of-the-art, but still stately," says Malkin, adding that the light show was "a gift we gave to the world, these lights. We don't get paid for this."
On a sunny Wednesday afternoon, with a spectacular view of the new World Trade Center and New York Harbor, a vacant space under reconstruction on the building's 72nd floor was filled with the retired floodlights, sitting side by side in long lines, veterans of years of New York weather. What will be done with them is also a secret - for now.
One old light will not be discarded in favor of a 21st century novelty: a red beacon - "half the size of a Volkswagen Beetle," as Malkin puts it - that serves as a warning signal for aircraft constantly flying over New York City.

1. What is the primary purpose of the first sentence of the article?
A) To explain that New Yorkers are commonly asleep in the middle of the night.
B) To mislead readers into thinking the light flash was some sort of attack
C) To build suspense and curiosity so that the reader wants to know more"
D) To suggest that there is a secret organization working late at night at the Empire State Building

2. The phrase "huge palette" in Paragraph 3 is most likely
A) A metaphor for the scope and range of combinations the new LED lights have
B) A literal explanation of the shape of the new lights, which form an artist's palette
C) An extreme over exaggeration meant to draw more onlookers to the new display
D) A way to emphasize the amount of lights, since 16.7 could never fit onto a palette

3. What does Alicia Keys suggest the Empire State building is a symbol of?
A) A way for Americans to have a landmark similar to other major global cities
B) The iconic American capacity to push boundaries and break new ground in art and architecture.
C) Lights that are always on due to the number of New Yorkers who work night shifts
D) That any person can use the new lights as a way to make a wish, as people do with other world landmarks.

4. To help keep the new lights secret during their initial test, all precautions were taken EXCEPT:
A) Conducting the test in the middle of the night
B) Conducting the test facing west, away from cameras
C) Conducting the test in short bursts, so that there was no sustained lighting
D) Conducting the test with additional sound effects to distract anyone who might be on the street

5. What was the primary reason Malkin and his team choose to test the new LED lights in the middle of the night?
A) Because the lights are impossible to see in the daylight
B) So that no spies would be awake to steal the new lighting design
C) Because his team only works at night, to enhance their creativity
D) So that when they made the formal reveal to the city and world, it would be a true surprise

6. How does the new LED display contribute to the Empire State Building's efforts to become more "green"?
A) The lights will be bright enough to reflect into the building, allowing less lighting to be used indoors
B) The new lighting will consume almost half the amount of energy the old lights did
C) The lights can become green in color, to cover the entire building
D) The lights will be solar-powered, generating their own electricity.

7. The article suggests that some older people might miss the old lights. Why is this?
A) The elderly who have poorer eyesight have an easier time seeing the old lights
B) The older generation might not understand the technology behind the new LED lighting
C) Those who used to work in the Empire State Building will no longer be able to recognize it without the old, larger lights
D) The old lights represented momentous occasions in American history, and may still have nostalgic value

8. In the second-to-last paragraph, the old floodlights are described as "veterans." What is the most suitable explanation for this word in context?
A) The old lights have worked through the years, despite harsh weather conditions and continual use for special occassions
B) The old lights have been up through many previous wars, making them literal veterans
C) The old lights were dedicated to the Empire State Building to memorialize war heroes
D) The old lights were only used before to celebrate Veteran's Day

9. Currently, how many of the former lights are set to be preserved for a specific purpose?
A) All, to replace other major lights around the city
B) None, they are all set to be discarded entirely
C) Five, spaced across Central Park for more light and better security
D) One, to serve as a warning beacon for aircraft

10. Why might it be important for the Empire State's global image to replace its lighting?
A) To represent that it is both environmentally conscious as well as technologically advanced
B) To prove that other world landmarks are not as spectacular
C) To suggest that despite its being decades-old, the Empire State Building is still relevant
D) To provide New Yorkers and visitors with better entertainment
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